eBooks And Electronic Documents

PDF Documents

Guide to Library

A library is a collection of information or similar resources that are stored together. Library provides physical or digital access to the information that can be stored physically in a building, in a room or a virtual space like the internet. Information stored can be of any type, and about everything and the collections may include books, videotapes, manuscripts, films, DVDs, databases, CDs, cassettes, newspapers, periodicals, maps, documents and so on.

The first known libraries were discovered in Sumer, dating back even to 2600BC. They consisted of archives and an ancient form of writings. The biggest and earliest libraries that included thousands of books and archives were found in Greece and are dated back to the classical period of the fifth century BC.

Libraries are created to store collected information that ease the process of searching for people and are generally owned by a corporation, private individual, institution or a public body. It is impossible for most of the population to afford a collection of books in order to get the needed information. For example, if researchers bought all the required books to do research, it would make the process very long or even impossible.

Except just offering books and different materials to interested people, libraries also provide the service of a librarian that is a professional in finding the needed information or offering the relevant one. Also, their duty is to control the visitors as some of them may take the books home without warning or without paying a fee and leaving no identification document for it. They also provide quiet areas for studying and some common areas for collaborations and group studies. In order to make the process comfortable, they also control the noise and can even ask the visitor to leave the library in case of inappropriate behavior.

In most cases, libraries required payments for entering and staying for several hours. Although, in lots of modern ones, there is an unrestricted access to information. Big libraries mostly have restricted accesses to some areas as they store a large number of books or archives that have only one exemplary and are very old, expensive and inclusive. This kind of areas need a particular Access Pass or entry fee, and they are generally protected by guards. So, not all information is available for visitors.

Digital Libraries

Nowadays, libraries are redefined as places with unrestricted access to information. They are extending their services by providing the necessary material by electronic means. In some countries like the US, libraries are becoming community hubs, where people gather in groups, communicate, work on one project and engage in lifelong learning. Often they are helping groups in mobilizing and organizing their rights. Often they ensure the rights of immigrants, homeless people, disabled ones, cultural minorities, and LGBTQ community. So, the mission of a library often extends the process of only reading the books.

Ancient Libraries

The oldest found libraries consist of archives with the earliest forms of writings. Information was mostly stored on clay tablets and cuneiform scripts. They mostly stored information about their inventions, kings or rulers, winners of the battles and records of commercial transactions and exchanges.

Other types of famous ancient records are written on papyrus of Ancient Egypt.

Over 30,000 of clay tablets were found in Mesopotamia, and they are now providing modern scholars with the information about a fantastic wealth of Mesopotamian literary, administrative and religious

works. Researchers have found lots of information about planets, sun, stars, thunders, rain, their visibility, and appearance of that time.

The tablets were usually stored in different containers like baskets and boxes, that were made out of wood and were placed on clay shelves. These „libraries" were cataloged on the side of the tablet by using colophons. Colophons showed the title of the tablet, the series name and any additional information that was needed for identification. Generally, these tablets were organized by size and height. Unfortunately, there was not enough free space, which meant that old tablets were removed and replaced by new ones. This is why lots of tablets are missing, and some information is lost.


Libraries during the Classical Period

The largest and one of the most significant libraries of the ancient period was the Library of Alexandria in Egypt. It served as a major center of scholarship in the 3rd century BC until the 30th, BC, until Rome conquested Egypt. As Egyptians were using papyrus for writing, it took them less space to store and therefore lots of information has reached us.

In ancient Greece, private and personal libraries stored handwritten books that included state and institutional records. The oldest found ones are dated from 5th century BC. During the Roman invasions, lots of books were destroyed and burned. Some of the libraries were moved to Rome.

Islamic Lands

During the 8th century, Iranians and Arabs learned and imported the craft of papermaking from China. They started calling the paper – „Bagdatikos“ as they started producing it in the year of 794 in Baghdad. By the 9th century, many Islamic cities started opening libraries. They named them as „houses of knowledge“ and were endowed by Islamic sects for the purpose of promoting the dissemination of secular knowledge. In the 9th century, the ruler Abbasid Caliph al-Mutavakkil ordered to build construction for readers called „zawiyat qurra," and it was fully furnished and equipped for comfortable time-spending. From their ancient books, these libraries were described as complexes surrounded by several gardens, lakes, and waterways. The buildings themselves were topped with domes and had 360 rooms furnished with carpets. The libraries often employed translators as librarians in order to render and translate records from Ancient Greece, Rome, and other territories. Islamic libraries seem to be the first ones that implemented a catalog of owned materials and books.

Golden Age of Libraries

Some of the most important and biggest libraries were founded during the 17th and 8th centuries and this era were named Golden. At the beginning of the 18th century, libraries became increasingly public and there opened more ones that were open to people and were lending books with ease.

Before this time, books were often chained to desks and libraries were very parochial.

At that time, British Museum already existed and contained more than 50,000 books, but this national library was not accessible to the public. People had to use special passes, for which they could have waited in the queue even for more than 3-4 months. Moreover, the British Museum was not open to browsings. At the beginning of the 19th century, the Chetham's Museum opened in Manchester, offering free access to the books.

As for private subscription libraries, they functioned in almost the same manner as other commercial subscription libraries. But, there were important ways in which they varied. One of the most popular versions is that private subscription libraries could be only accessed by men. For example, this kind of library was Liverpool's subscription library. It was renamed in 1798 to Athenaeum, and a newsroom with a coffeehouse was added to it. The annual description fee was five shillings. Middle –class reading habits were mostly about Geography, History, and Antiquities.

As for America, the first subscription library was founded by Benjamin Franklin. He formed a club called – "a club of mutual improvements." The members were calling each other "Junto." The only members were men, and they were getting enough income in order to purchase more and more books and be stable members of the club. Therefore, they were sharing the books to each other and creating small libraries themselves.

Ebooks and documents

My Login - paychek-plus My Login - paychek-plus
You are using an unsupported browser version and may lose access to this website. Click here to update your browser.
Data Acquisition and LabVIEW - Mechanical Engineering Data Acquisition and LabVIEW - Mechanical Engineering
Data Acquisition and LabVIEW Prof. R.G. Longoria Department of Mechanical Engineering The University of Texas at Austin June 2015 ME 144L Dynamic Systems and Controls Lab (Longoria)
Fire Science careerS - Hutchinson Community College Fire Science careerS - Hutchinson Community College
Fire Science careerS Hutchinson Community College and Area Vocational School is the premier two-year college in the state of Kansas. ... the HCC Student Firefighter Association for our majors. Check out our website to decide what you want to do first! Student Support Services
Get the most from your Merrill Lynch tax reporting statement Get the most from your Merrill Lynch tax reporting statement
123 MAIN STREET ROBERT A SMIT Merrill Lynch, Pierce, Fenner & Smith Inc NEW YORK, NY 10281 717 FIFTH AVENUE 1500 Merrill Lynch Drive, NJ2-150-01-13 NEW YORK, NY 10022 Pennington, NJ 08534-4129 Federal Identification Number 13-5674085 This is important tax information and is being furnished to the Internal Revenue Service.
eye openers exploring optical illusions - KY EYE MDS eye openers exploring optical illusions - KY EYE MDS
The optical illusions in this book illustrate three fascinating aspects of the human visual system: binocular vision, the eye-brain connection, and persis-tence of vision.Can you believe your eyes? Not always.You will discover that some optical illusions trick us because we have two eyes (binocular vision).
by Chad Triolet - JMU Homepage by Chad Triolet - JMU Homepage
This document was created with Win2PDF available at The unregistered version of Win2PDF is for evaluation or non-commercial use only.
Maximum PC - Official Site Maximum PC - Official Site
We would like to show you a description here but the site won’t allow us.
NASA Town Hall Meeting NASA Town Hall Meeting
NASA Town Hall Meeting • Introduction Andrew Petro, Program Executive, STMD • Small Spacecraft Technology – Andres Martinez, Program Manager – Smallsat Technology Partnerships - Selections for 2015 – Pathfinder RFI and Tipping Point NRA – Upcoming Demonstration Missions
Into Thin Air - Hunterdon County Library Into Thin Air - Hunterdon County Library
the impetus for Into Thin Air, Krakauer's epic account of the May 1996 disaster. By writing Into Thin Air, Krakauer may have hoped to exorcise some of his own demons and lay to rest some of the painful questions that still surround the event. He takes great pains to provide a balanced picture of the people and
Submitting assignments to Turnitin Submitting assignments to Turnitin
user agreement Our user agreement has been updated. Please read our user agreement below and agree or disagree to its terms and conditions: (the "Site") and its services are maintained by Paradigms, LLC
Perfect Squares and Square Roots - Virginia Department of ... Perfect Squares and Square Roots - Virginia Department of ...
Perfect Squares and Square Roots Reporting Category Computation and Estimation . Topic. Working with perfect squares and square roots . Primary SOL. 8.5 The student will . a) determine whether a given number is a perfect square; and . b) find the two consecutive whole numbers between which a
Bookstores • Athletics and Physical Education at CCRI ... Bookstores • Athletics and Physical Education at CCRI ...
ADVISING AND COUNSELING CCRI’s Department of Advising and Counseling offers a full range of academic advising, career, educational and personal counseling services. Academic advising is available for students with program and course selection concerns. Career counseling, consisting of interest, values and
Should Torture be Justifiable? - Should Torture be Justifiable? -
This paper will focus on the absolute nature of the prohibition of torture as codified in Article 3 of 1 Free from conditions, limitations or qualifications, not dependent, or modified or affected by circumstances; that is, without any condition or restrictive provisions, non-derogable. Antonym for relative. The possibility of derogation
Math 126 C - Winter 2006 Mid-Term Exam Number Two ... Math 126 C - Winter 2006 Mid-Term Exam Number Two ...
since ex > 0 for all x, and (1+e2x)1/2 > 0 for all x. Hence, the only critical point is at x = 1 2 ln 1 2. Since2e2x isastrictly increasingfunction, wecanseethatthatκ′(x)isgoingtobenegative forxgreaterthanthevaluewejust found,anditwillbepositive forxlessthanthatvalue. In other words, we can conclude that this value of x gives us the maximum value of κ(x).
VIVAXIM DATA SHEET A follow-up study examined residual antibody levels 3 years after the primary vaccination. At this time, a subset of the original subjects underwent re-vaccination with the combined vaccine; antibody response was recorded 28 days later. Three years after primary vaccination with VIVAXIM ®, the typhoid Vi seroprotection rate
GEB5215 Professional Communication SM B, F1, F2, SP3, SP4 MAN5246 Organizational Behavior SM B, F2, SP4 MAN5502 Prod & Operations Management SM A, SP4 MAN6636 Global Strategic Management (Capstone) F2 & SP4 MAR5806 Problems in Marketing Management F2 & SP4 QMB5304 Intro to Managerial Statistics F1 & SP3 XXX#### Graduate Business Elective various
Greasy Lake & other stories, 1985, 229 pages, T ... Greasy Lake & other stories, 1985, 229 pages, T ...
Bitten , Kelley Armstrong, 2004, Fiction, 436 pages. On the eve of her marriage, Elena Michaels learns that her fiance has been concealing his secret life as a werewolf, and, as a bonus, he has
Kresge Law Library Strategic Plan 2012-2015 Kresge Law Library Strategic Plan 2012-2015
Kresge Law Library Strategic Plan 2012-2015. VISION. To be a great scholarly resource for legal study in the Catholic intellectual tradition in service to the faculty and students of Notre Dame Law School, to the University of Notre Dame, and to the global legal community. MISSION
2019 NTI Catalog v1 - 2019 NTI Catalog v1 -
Neurodiagnostic Technology Institute is approved to offer a Neurodiagnostic Technology certificate program which is delivered in an online environment. This institution is regulated by: Office for Career and Technical Schools 10 N. Senate Avenue, Suite SE 308 Indianapolis, IN 46204
T100 Series - Intermatic T100 Series - Intermatic
Energy Controls Diagrams T100 Series Specification The time switch shall be of the 24-Hour dial type, capable of permitting up to 12 ON/OFF operations each day.
World History I Directions Read each question and choose the best answer. Then fill in the circle on your answer document for the answer you have chosen. 3 SAMPLE The Great Wall of China was built to — A close China to foreign trade B provide a trade route across Asia C protect China from invaders D create a monument to Mongol rule
Installation and Operation Manual - Air Techniques Installation and Operation Manual - Air Techniques
VacStar NEO Unit Left Side View VacStar NEO Unit Right Side View KEY PARTS IDENTIFICATION - TWIN PUMPS Figure 3 . VacStar 50 and 80 NEO Parts Location Leveling Feet Electrical Connection Box Vacuum Breaker Frame Digital Display Intake Solids Collector Base Plate Inlet Manifold Pump Vacuum
greenhouse project they are working on at the Boston Globe. There is lots of information to report. I look forward to seeing . you. on February 6th. Take care! ... Scally Trayers Funeral Home 54 Pleasant Street . Dorchester Tire Service Alliance Auto Glass 1160 Dorchester Avenue . 902 Dorchester Avenue . Spire 65 Bay Street .
Page 1 of 26 8:00 - 16-Jan-2019 Property Rental ... Page 1 of 26 8:00 - 16-Jan-2019 Property Rental ...
related to Pub. 527, such as legislation enacted after it was published, go to What’s New Expired deduction for mortgage insurance premiums. At the time this publication went to print, the deduction for mortgage insurance pre-miums had expired. You can't claim a deduction for mortgage insurance premiums for expenses
Directory of Participating Providers for the State of ... Directory of Participating Providers for the State of ...
Directory of Participating Providers for the State of California ... TARGET OPTICAL 9100 ROSEDALE HWY BAKERSFIELD 93312 (661) 589-7745 ANDREW RUMMEL OD 8400 ROSEDALE HWY BAKERSFIELD 93312 (661) 587-7784 ... STERLING VISION CARE 69 SERRAMONTE CENTER DALY CITY 94015 (650) 992-8404 WAYNE MARTIN MD 1111 S GRAND AVE STE A DIAMOND BAR 91765 (909) 860 ...
2 Exam date: Wednesday, October 11, 2016, 6:15-8:15 pm. The exam room will be announced in class. Exam is closed book, closed notes, no phone use, and no computer use. Calculators (no phone calculators though) are allowed.
Dr. Shankaraiah G. Konda - JACS Directory Dr. Shankaraiah G. Konda - JACS Directory
4) Presented a paper Poster entitled ^A onvenient Synthesis of 1, 5- benzodiazepine derivatives in National onference on urrent Innovations in hemical Research î î-23th December 2014, organized by Department of Chemistry, K. J. Somaiya College, Kopargaon (MS).
www.seidcon www.seidcon
(SEIDCON), founded in 1983, is a woman owned small business based in Palm Coast, Florida which provides Information Technology support services to Government agencies nationwide and around the world.
- wait for it - the Mongols! - Home - Polk School District - wait for it - the Mongols! - Home - Polk School District
Hi I’m John Green; this is Crash Course World History and today we’re gonna discuss - wait for it - the Mongols! So you probably have a picture of the Mongols in your head. Yes, that’s the picture: brutal, bloodthirsty, swarthy, humorously mustachioed warriors riding the plains, wearing fur, eating meat directly off the bone, saying, "Bar bar
Closed primary elections serve an important purpose Closed primary elections serve an important purpose
Closed primary elections serve an important purpose By John Gale With the presidential primary season underway, Americans are hearing a lot about open and closed primaries. An open primary allows a registered independent to vote for races in either the Republican or Democratic primary.

We use cookies, just to track visits to our website, we store no personal details.